About Okinawa

About Okinawa

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    Okinawa is a prefecture located at the southernmost tip of Japan and consists of 363 islands, with Okinawa main island being the center.

    The islands in the vast waters of about 1,000 km east-west and about 400 km north and south are Japan’s premier resort areas sandwiched between the East China Sea and the Pacific Ocean. More specifically speaking, it is a marine resort.
    However, although the sea of ​​the resort is maintained, I think that it is different from the natural sea of ​​Okinawa.
    You may want to find your own favorite sea.
    2281 square kilometers. Population of approximately 1.4 million people

    Geologically, the Ryukyu Archipelago and the Amami Archipelago are sediments on the uplifted oceanic crust that was pressed against the edge of the land side slope Eurasia plate of the trench when the Philippine Sea plate subducts below the Eurasia plate.

    The population of Okinawa main island is concentrated in Naha city and Okinawa city of the prefectural office’s location.
    The prefectural office is located in Naha City.
    The national parks are the Iriomote Ishigaki National Park, the Kerama islands national park, the Yanbare National Park.
    The National Park is the Okinawa Coast National Monumental Park and the Okinawa Battle National Monumental Park.
    Development by private enterprises is restricted in national parks and National Parks.
    In addition, the Okinawa prefectural natural park has Kumejima prefectural natural park, Irabe prefectural natural park, and Togeki prefectural natural park.
    There is also a World Heritage Site. Gusuku (castle) of the Ryukyu Kingdom and related heritage centered on Shuri castle of the former Ryukyu Kingdom.
    There are histories and cultures different from Japanese architecture and china architecture such as color, sculpture and stone quarry in buildings.
    Shuri castle is famous, but afterwards, afterwards, Shikinaen, Sufuu, squatting, and afterwards, afterwards, its that well Utami cypress, Tama, how are you doing?

    Subtropical climate is almost entirely, some belong to the tropics.
    Miyakojima, Tamagarujima, Ishigakijima, Iriomote Island, Yonagunijima, Haterumajima, and Oki-Daito Island are tropical climates, Köppen’s climate classifies tropical rainforest climate, and in other areas subtropical and temperate humid climate.
    Subtropical is a temperate climate throughout the year, with the difference between the highest and lowest temperatures being small, no mountain with high altitude is present and it will not be below freezing point.
    Okinawa has a narrow land area and is surrounded by the sea, so there is no contemporary discomfort like a heat island like the continents and large cities.
    For Okinawa in Japan with four seasons it is memory to snow in winter. There are reports that witnessed snow-like things.
    An average of 23 degrees per year. It is a climate that is easier to spend than Tokyo, which is about 10 degrees even in winter, and 35 degrees is not going even in summer.
    I feel cold than the temperature because sea breeze is strong in winter. I need a coat.
    And summer is easier than Tokyo, but the sky is too beautiful and the amount of ultraviolet rays is large. The sun’s sun is really strong.
    In Okinawa, we will not go out to the sunny sea, we will swim in the evening where the sun has weakened.

    In the northern part of the main island of Okinawa, forest called Yamabara spreads, precious creatures such as Noguchigera, Yambaru Quinna, Yanbarutagogane etc. are inhabited. A part of the coastline of Yamabara and Okinawa main island, the Kerama islands etc. are designated as Okinawa Coast National Monument Park. A part of Iriomote Island and a part of Ishigaki Island are designated as Iriomote Ishigaki National Park, mangrove forest spreads, valuable creatures such as Iriomote cat and others are inhabited.

    • このトピックは管理人が4年、 8ヶ月前に変更しました。

    The origin of the place name “Okinawa (Okinawa)” is a theory originating from “Oki (fish)” (place) meaning “fishing ground of Okinawa” (Inami Pompei) and “The place in the offing There is a theory that originates from “Oki (distant place)” (place) “meaning” a distant place “, and Hayato Higasen, but neither has been established.
    In the biography of Jianzhen that Ominomifune has authored the “Tang Yamato above Tadashi Azuma Den (rattan Yamato Joto Tadashi)” (779 years established), tenpyō-shōhō 5 December 12 (754 January 9, 2009) envoys line It was stated that it was drifting in Akanagajima (Akinana Hazama), which is said to refer to the main island of Okinawa. It seems that it later became known as the Ryukyu of the designation by China. The etymology of this Ryukyus has not been clarified yet.
    During the Ryukyu disposition, within the Meiji government the name “Ryukyu ken” was also considered. This was the one that went up to the top when 1879 (Meiji 12), the Ryukyu clan was abolished and Okinawa prefecture was established. In the text on the Ryukyu disposition attached on March 1 of the same year submitted to Minami Sanjo by Hirofumi Ito, the interior minister, “Ryukyu clan waste disposal, Meni Ryukyusi prefecture owner’s disposition, this declaration notice prefectural office Ha shuri ni placement thing “and the name of the Ryukyus prefecture was used but it was not adopted. Although the background during this period is unknown, it can be inferred that Ryukyus originated from Chinese was chosen because Okinawa has more intention to belong to Japan. Although the term “Okinawa” was originally a term pointing to the main island of Okinawa, the whole Ryukyu archipelago excluding the Amami archipelago of Kagoshima prefecture was established by the establishment of Okinawa Prefecture, so that it became known as Okinawa, and it was interpreted in a broader sense It was

    Okinawa, which is one of the 14 regional categories of Japan by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, consists of only one prefecture of Okinawa Prefecture [11]. In addition, it is sometimes called a part of “Kyushu district” or “Kyushu-Okinawa district”. (Refer to the origin of Kyushu and “Kyushu”) The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport makes “Okinawa main island” one of the “mainland” 5 islands. According to the Geographical Survey Institute, Japan Coast Guard, Okinawa Prefecture consists of 363 islands. It consists of 49 manned islands and numerous uninhabited islands, and 160 islands have islands with an area of ​​0.01 km 2 or more. It has a large prefecture area of ​​about 1,000 km from the eastern end to the west end and about 400 km from the northernmost to the southern end [15]. The Nansei Islands extends from Kagoshima prefecture to near Taiwan, and in geographical distribution it is roughly divided into three to the Tokara archipelago of the north, the Amami archipelago, the Okinawa islands and the Sakishima archipelago.
    Between the main island of Okinawa and Miyakojima is called the Miyako Strait and has a distance of about 145 nautical miles (about 270 km) in the narrowest section, of which about 48 nautical miles (about 89 km) are territorial waters and connected waters, the remaining about 97 Northern (about 97 km) is an exclusive economic zone.
    Between Yonagunijima and Taiwan is about 54 nautical miles (about 100 km).

    Despite many remote islands, remote island medical care is short for human resources and economic reasons, there are many islands where there is no hospital but only a clinic. Therefore, the Ground Self Defense Force and the Japan Coast Guard are carrying out air transportation of an emergency patient who can not be treated on a remote island to the main island of Okinawa. Since Miyakojima and Ishigakijima have prefectural general hospitals, the emergency cases in remote islands around those islands may be transported to Miyakojima and Ishigakijima instead of the main island of Okinawa.
    Within the 1,000 km radius of Naha City, the capital of the prefectural government, the whole area of ​​Kyushu Island, Shimonoseki, Shanghai, Fuzhou and Taiwan Islands are included, and Osaka, Nanjing, Seoul, Pyongyang, Manila, Hong Kong etc. are located within 1,500 km . Within 2000 km, there are Tokyo, Sendai, Beijing, Shenyang, Haian province Haikou City, Changchun, Vladivostok, etc. Within 2,500 km, Wakkanai, Chengdu, Chongqing, Hanoi, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, It is also a point of contact between Asia / Southeast Asia and Japan.
    Urbanization and population concentration in the central and southern part of Okinawa main island centering on Naha city and Okinawa city are progressing, and more than 1.1 million people live in about one-fifth of the total area (Okinawa main island # middle and south part city See also the area). Besides, there are many US military bases in extraterritoriality, and the available area is further limited. Therefore, the population density is the ninth place nationwide, the second highest after Fukuoka prefecture except for the prefectures of the three metropolitan areas.
    The Ryukyu Islands are sandwiched between the Ryukyu Trench on the Pacific side and the Okinawa Trough on the East China Sea side. The Ryukyu Trench was formed by the Philippine Sea plate entering the Eurasian plate, which is the same cause as the Nankai Trough. In addition, the back basin Okinawa trough is a depression of 1,000 ~ 2,000 m which the Eurasian plate was torn apart in a new era and is depressed, such as a hydrothermal deposit. Geologically, Okinawa Island and Amami Ooshima are among the Ryukyu Archipelago (Islands) called the middle Ryukyu sandwiched between the Kerama Sea Fail and the Tokara Strait, and the island is an oceanic crust adduct (oceanic crust A sediment on the uplifted oceanic crust that was pressed against the edge of the land side slope Eurasian plate of the trench when the Philippine Sea Plate subducted below the Eurasian Plate which is the land side slope) and further comprised 300 million ? Okinawa Island north side made of old additive sediments 50 million years ago and the south side of Okinawa island made up of local sediments made five million years ago.
    It is blessed with subtropical climate suitable for living things, and has many valuable animals and plants. In the northern part of the main island of Okinawa, forest called Yamabara spreads, precious creatures such as Noguchigera, Yambaru Quinna, Yanbarutagogane etc. are inhabited. A part of the coastline of Yamabara and Okinawa main island, the Kerama islands etc. are designated as Okinawa Coast National Monument Park. A part of Iriomote Island and a part of Ishigaki Island are designated as Iriomote Ishigaki National Park, mangrove forest spreads, valuable creatures such as Iriomote cat and others are inhabited. There are 55 locations in Japan’s important wetlands designated by the Ministry of the Environment in Okinawa Prefecture. This is the second largest number in Japan next to Hokkaido (61 places).
    Heavy rain and water shortage
    In June of each year from 2005 (Heisei era 2005) to 2007 (Heisei era 2007) heavy rain and thunder struck the main island of Okinawa due to the rainy front, and floods, landslides, cliff collapses and so on in various places. Although the average value of rainfall throughout the year is large, there are many rainfalls due to the rainy season and typhoon, large fluctuation due to the year, because there is no big river soon will flow out to the sea, so climate and topographically water shortage It is prone to falling. In addition, the population was about 51 million people in 1946, increased to about 96 million people in 1972 on the mainland return (1972), often water outage due to water shortage from the supply and demand relationship until the first half of the 1990s has been carried out. Especially during the drought in 1981 – 1982, water supply restrictions were implemented for the longest 326 days in Japan. Therefore, many houses have a water supply tank on the roof etc. However, the introduction of water from the northern part of the main island of Okinawa proceeded to the south, and in September 1997 a seawater desalination facility was completed in Chatanicho, which is capable of supplying water stably regardless of the climate [23] Although the prefectural population increased to about 1.36 million in 2005 (2005), it was reduced that the water shortage occurred.
    For details, refer to “Nansei Islands Coastal Earthquake”
    In Japan, which is said to be an “earthquake great country”, like the Kyushu and others, the number of (sensitive) earthquakes per year was small and it was regarded as one of the areas with the least risk of earthquakes in terms of climate, population density (Although the seismic area coefficient showing the magnitude of earthquake occurrence and the magnitude of damage at the time of occurrence is the only prefecture in Japan “0.7”, this value may be revised later). However, in the latest statistics collection of the damage insurance premium rate calculation mechanism, it is the second place and it is no longer regarded as a region with low risk. In the past large tsunami caused by the Yaeyama earthquake of 1771 caused a great deal of damage to Sakishima Islands. Recently, the earthquake occurred in the Okinawa main island near the main island of 2010, observed for more than 5 seismic intensity on the main island of Okinawa for the first time in about 100 years, a part of the castle wall of Katsurenji castle collapsed

    It belongs to the South Japan climate in the climate division in Japan.
    Miyakojima, Takarajima, Ishigakijima, Iriomote Island, Yonagunijima, Haterumajima, Oki-Daitojima are tropical climates, Köppen’s climate classification is the tropical rainforest climate (Af), in other areas it is subtropical and temperate humid climate Cfa). Okinawa Prefecture Each region has high temperature and high humidity, annual precipitation is over 2,000 mm, annual average temperature is about 22 ° C. However, it is rare that the maximum temperature will rise above 35 ℃. This is because Okinawa has a small land area and is surrounded by the sea (oceanic climate) because there is no factor like the large phenomenon of heat island phenomenon caused by the phenomenon, weather and weak urbanization (However, there is a research report on a small heat island phenomenon in urban areas). Okinawa is also called Typhoon Ginza, and many typhoons approach each year. By monthly rainfall, the rainfall is large in August, when typhoons approach much in May, which is the average period of rainy season. In addition, sunshine hours are long in July and short in January and February in winter. The around the end of the rainy season, the summer solstice southerly winds (in the main island of Okinawa Kachibe, in the near Miyako, Yaeyama Kachibai) and a strong wind blowing a per second 10m more southerly called, is known as seasonal winds usher in the summer.
    Although that there is snow in the winter is very rare, in the Kume Island in 1977 (1977) February 17, 2016 (2016), respectively in the Kume Island and the Nago City on January 24, sleet ( We treated the same as snow on weather record). Snowfall records in Okinawa Prefecture officially announced by the Japan Meteorological Agency are only 2 cases, and snowfall in Kume Island is a southern limit record of snowfall in Japan.
    In the observation start earlier, according to the “Tamahi” as the Ryukyu Kingdom of Masashi, 1774, 1816, 1843, 1845, record each that there was a snowfall in the area of ​​the current Okinawa Prefecture in 1857 doing.
    In addition, in January 1968, frost, hail, hail, etc. were observed in various places in the prefecture, and damage to agricultural crops also occurred.
    1999 (1999) December 20, the sightings of “snowed” the back and forth, such as Naha City is more than reported, has been broadcasting the video of the “what looks like snow” in NHK Okinawahosokyoku, The weather stations are negative because of the high temperature, and it is not an official snowfall record.

    Okinawa Prefecture is one of Japan’s best sightseeing provinces and service industry is developing and it is the center of the prefecture economy. Okinawa Prefecture without any conspicuous industries besides sightseeing has sides that depend on the economy (military employee income, military rental fee, shops for American soldiers, restaurants, etc.) generated by the US military base in Japan Dependence has decreased from 15.5% in 1972, but still accounts for 5.7%. Within the US military base there are facilities such as offices, hospitals, shopping centers, etc. The prefectural residents of about 9000 people work at the base facilities, becoming the second largest employment place after the Okinawa prefectural government.
    The industrial structure in Okinawa Prefecture is characterized by a lower weight of the secondary industry than the whole country and a high weight of the tertiary industry, but this trend has not changed at all since return. The proportion of secondary industry and tertiary industry in the prefecture’s gross domestic product in FY2003 is 13.9% and 84.4% respectively, and the difference is clear compared with 24.4% and 73.9% nationwide. In particular, the ratio of manufacturing industry is very large, 18.4% nationwide compared with 4.2% in Okinawa prefecture. Also, the proportion of government service producers (economic activities such as public electricity, gas, water service and public affairs) is high at 16.0% in Okinawa Prefecture (FY2010). This high proportion continues since the return.
    Gross production in the prefecture in 2014 (Heisei 20th century) was 4,174.9 billion yen, the economic growth rate compared with the previous year increased by 1.5%. The nominal amount increased by 3.5% to 4,051.1 billion yen, each positive growth for the sixth consecutive year. The prefectural income per capita in FY2004 is 212,990 yen (nationwide average is 2.86 million yen). The unemployment rate is highest in Japan, but in 2016 Okinawa’s unemployment rate fell to the 3% level for the first time in 23 years.
    Because it is a remote island prefecture, those that need to be imported from other prefectures, such as fresh foods, household appliances, automobiles, etc. that can not be produced are expensive compared with the mainland by the transportation cost. Therefore, special prices are not low compared with the mainland region.
    Agriculture · Fisheries
    Agriculture produces tropical fruits such as mango, acerola, pine, dragon fruit, sugar cane, tobacco, goya (bitter), etc. by utilizing Japan’s only tropical and subtropical climate.
    In fishery, fish farming such as tuna, squid, brush, takasago, horse mackerel, red headpiece etc. are also popular.
    In the livestock industry, pig farming has been actively carried out since ancient times and famous for Okinawa Agu is famous. Goats and cattle are also being produced.
    Industry · Mining
    There are manufacturing industries such as manufacture of sugar, beverages, foodstuffs, etc., and ceramic and stone products manufacturing centered mainly on cement manufacturing, but both are small scale.
    Quality limestone exists in the main peninsula of the main island of Okinawa, and it is mined as raw material for cement and raw material for crushed and crushed sand. There were abundant phosphorus ores on Okiitojima and Kitaitoigashima, but now they are exhausted and exhausted.
    On the ocean floor off the main island of Okinawa, the largest hydrothermal deposit in the country is spreading, and it contains rare metals such as gallium and bismuth as well as copper, zinc and so on, so the exploratory survey as the next generation marine resource is active.
    At the bottom of the East China Sea, natural gas and petroleum, which has an estimated reserves of about 100 billion barrels, are asleep, and in the vicinity of the Japan-China middle line there is a territorial dispute with China (see the issue of the East China Sea gas field).
    Bioethanol, which is charged with plant resources as a fuel, attracted much attention, and prefectural sugarcane was attracting attention as a raw material, but withdrawing due to poor profitability.

    People with ancestors in the land of Okinawa are generally referred to as Ryukyu people from the geographical, historical and cultural background. Race was said to have been transferred from southern Kyushu from the prehistoric period to the 10th century, and it is confirmed that it is genetically similar to the mainland in molecular biology research. The residents of the Okinawa Islands, sometimes called the Northern Ryukyus, are almost the same as residents of Kyushu, Honshu and Shikoku on molecular biology (phylogenetic analysis by Y chromosome). The Japanese government does not recognize the Ryukyu people as “indigenous peoples” of Okinawa, but UNESCO recognizes having ethnicity, history, culture and tradition unique to Okinawa. After returning to Okinawa many Yamato people who have their ancestors on the mainland moved.
    The international marriage rate of women is the highest in the whole country, and there are many half-quarter or two-quarter mixed bloods (irresponsible child) born between American men and Okinawan women.

    Many of Okinawa’s surnames derive from place names. During the Kingdom of the Ryukyus, royalty and samurai took the name of the family name corresponding to the current surname, and it changed also each time the territory changed. Many families have changed their name from Japanese-style two-letter first-name family name to so-called Okinawan-style third-letter surname, following the invasion by Satsuma clan, due to policies of Satsuma clan and policies of King Ryukyu. After the Ryukyus disposition, it was permissible for the general population to bear the surname, and after the Meiji period, many of the surnames of the Ryukyuan reading turned into Japanese reading.

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